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We determined the effect of mutations generated in HIV-1 LTR on viral gene expression in six mother-infant pairs following vertical transmission. We show that the functional domains critical for LTR function, the promoter (TATAA), enhancers (three SpI and two NFkappaB sites), the modulatory region (two AP-I sites, two NFAT, one NF-IL6 site, one Ets-1, and one USF-1) and the TAR region were generally conserved among mother-infant pairs, although we observed several patient and pair specific mutations in these important domains. We then determined the promoter activity of our mother-infant LTR sequences by measuring CAT gene expression, which was driven by these LTRs and found that most of these HIV-1 LTRs derived from 6 mother-infant pairs were functional. However, mutations in the important transcription factor binding sites, including TATAA, SpI, NFkappaB, AP-I, NFAT, NF-IL6, Ets-1, USF-1 and TAR resulted in reduced LTR driven CAT gene expression. Taken together, conservation of functional domains in the LTR during vertical transmission supports the notion that a functional LTR is critical in viral replication and pathogenesis and mutations generated during the course of infection correlated with HIV-1 gene expression.

No abstract given.

This study was designed to characterize and compare the pulmonary effects in distal lung from a low-level exposure to jet propellant-8 fuel (JP-8) and a new synthetic-8 fuel (S-8). It is hypothesized that both fuels have different airway epithelial deposition and responses. Consequently, male C57BL/6 mice were nose-only exposed to S-8 and JP-8 at average concentrations of 53mg/m(3) for 1h/day for 7 days. A pulmonary function test performed 24h after the final exposure indicated that there was a significant increase in expiratory lung resistance in the S-8 mice, whereas JP-8 mice had significant increases in both inspiratory and expiratory lung resistance compared to control values. Neither significant S-8 nor JP-8 respiratory permeability changes were observed compared to controls, suggesting no loss of epithelial barrier integrity. Morphological examination and morphometric analysis of airway tissue demonstrated that both fuels showed different patterns of targeted epithelial cells: bronchioles in S-8 and alveoli/terminal bronchioles in JP-8. Collectively, our data suggest that both fuels may have partially different deposition patterns, which may possibly contribute to specific different adverse effects in lung ventilatory function.

Chronic ingestion of arsenic is associated with increased incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the role of arsenic in early events in vascular pathology, C57BL/6 mice ingested drinking water with or without 50 ppb sodium arsenite (AsIII) for four, five, or eight weeks. At five and eight weeks, RNA from the lungs of control and AsIII-exposed animals was processed for microarray. Sixty-five genes were significantly and differentially expressed. Differential expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) gene transcripts was particularly compelling, as 91% of genes in this category, including elastin and collagen, were significantly decreased. In additional experiments, real-time RT-PCR showed an AsIII-induced decrease in many of these ECM gene transcripts in the heart and NIH3T3 fibroblast cells. Histological stains for collagen and elastin show a distinct disruption in the ECM surrounding small arteries in the heart and lung of AsIII-exposed mice. Immunohistochemical detection of alpha-smooth muscle actin in blood vessel walls was decreased in the AsIII-exposed animals. These data reveal a functional link between AsIII exposure and disruption in the vascular ECM. These AsIII-induced early pathological events may predispose humans to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases linked to chronic low-dose AsIII exposure.

As part of the innate immune defense, the polarized conducting lung epithelium acts as a barrier to keep particulates carried in respiration from underlying tissue. Arsenic is a metalloid toxicant that can affect the lung via inhalation or ingestion. We have recently shown that chronic exposure of mice or humans to arsenic (10-50 ppb) in drinking water alters bronchiolar lavage or sputum proteins consistent with reduced epithelial cell migration and wound repair in the airway. In this report, we used an in vitro model to examine effects of acute exposure of arsenic (15-290 ppb) on conducting airway lung epithelium. We found that arsenic at concentrations as low as 30 ppb inhibits reformation of the epithelial monolayer following scrape wounds of monolayer cultures. In an effort to understand functional contributions to epithelial wound repair altered by arsenic, we showed that acute arsenic exposure increases activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, an important protease in lung function. Furthermore, inhibition of MMP-9 in arsenic-treated cells improved wound repair. We propose that arsenic in the airway can alter the airway epithelial barrier by restricting proper wound repair in part through the upregulation of MMP-9 by lung epithelial cells.

It is now known that the flexibility of the troponin T (TnT) tail determines thin filament conformation and hence cross-bridge cycling properties, expanding the classic structural role of TnT to a dynamic role regulating sarcomere function. Here, using transgenic mice bearing R-92W and R-92L missense mutations in cardiac TnT known to alter the flexibility of the TnT tropomyosin-binding domain, we found mutation-specific differences in the cost of contraction at the whole heart level. Compared to age- and gender-matched sibling hearts, mutant hearts demonstrate greater ATP utilization measured using (31)P NMR spectroscopy as decreases in [ATP] and [PCr] and |DeltaG(~ATP)| at all workloads and profound systolic and diastolic dysfunction at all energetic states. R-92W hearts showed more severe energetic abnormalities and greater contractile dysfunction than R-92L hearts. The cost of increasing contraction was abnormally high when [Ca(2+)] was used to increase work in mutant hearts but was normalized with supply of the beta-adrenergic agonist dobutamine. These results show that R-92L and R-92W mutations in the TM-binding domain of cardiac TnT alter thin filament structure and flexibility sufficiently to cause severe defects in both whole heart energetics and contractile performance, and that the magnitude of these changes is mutation specific.

The effects of JP-8 on pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1alpha,beta and nitric oxide (NO) secretion as well as the role of substance P (SP) in these processes were examined in cultured alveolar macrophages (AM), type II epithelial cells (AIIE), and AM/AIIE co-cultures. Exposure of AM to JP-8 for 24 hr exhibited release of IL-1alpha,beta, whereas exposure to AIIE showed a concentration-dependent NO overproduction. Data indicate that there are cell-dependent inflammatory mechanisms responsible for the actual level of JP-8 exposure in alveoli. However, treatment with substance P significantly attenuated JP-8 induced the IL-1alpha,beta secretion. This finding was confirmed by using [Sar(9) Met (O(2))(11)] SP (10(- 10) M), an agonist of substance P, suggesting that substance P may have signal pathway(s) to AM in the inflammatory response mediated by IL-1. Moreover, AM/AIIE co-culture obviously reduced NO overproduction observed in AIIE alone, suggesting that there may be cell interactions or communications between AM and AIIE in response to the JP-8 exposure.

Environmental exposure to arsenic results in multiple adverse effects in the lung. Our objective was to identify potential pulmonary protein biomarkers in the lung-lining fluid of mice chronically exposed to low-dose As and to validate these protein changes in human populations exposed to As.

Mice were administered 10 or 50 ppb As (sodium arsenite) in their drinking water for 4 weeks. Proteins in the lung-lining fluid were identified using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (n = 3) or multidimensional protein identification technology (MUDPIT) (n = 2) coupled with mass spectrometry. Lung-induced sputum samples were collected from 57 individuals (tap water As ranged from ~ 5 to 20 ppb). Protein levels in sputum were determined by ELISA, and As species were analyzed in first morning void urine.

Proteins in mouse lung-lining fluid whose expression was consistently altered by As included glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-omega-1, contraspin, apolipoprotein A-I and A-IV, enolase-1, peroxiredoxin-6, and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Validation of the putative biomarkers was carried out by evaluating As-induced alterations in RAGE in humans. Regression analysis demonstrated a significant negative correlation (p = 0.016) between sputum levels of RAGE and total urinary inorganic As, similar to results seen in our animal model.

Combinations of proteomic analyses of animal models followed by specific analysis of human samples provide an unbiased determination of important, previously unidentified putative biomarkers that may be related to human disease.

Compounds from rhizomes of Zingiber officinale, commonly called ginger, have been purported to have anti-inflammatory actions. We have used an in vitro test system to test the anti-inflammatory activity of compounds isolated from ginger rhizome. U937 cells were differentiated and exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli (1 microg/ml) in the presence or absence of organic extracts or standard compounds found in ginger (6-, 8-, 10-gingerol or 6-shogaol) for 24 h. Supernatants were collected and analyzed for the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) by standard ELISA assays. Predominant compounds in the organic extracts were identified as 6-, 8- 10-gingerols and 6-, 8-, 10-shogaols. Organic extracts or standards containing gingerols were not cytotoxic, while extracts or standards containing predominantly shogaols were cytotoxic at concentrations above 20 microg/ml. Crude organic extracts of ginger were capable of inhibiting LPS induced PGE(2) (IC(50)<0.1 microg/ml) production. However, extracts were not nearly as effective at inhibiting TNF-alpha (IC(50)>30 microg/ml). Thirty three fractions and subfractions, prepared by column chromatography, were analyzed for bioactivity. Extracts containing either predominantly gingerols or shogaols (identified by HPLC) were both highly active at inhibiting LPS-induced PGE(2) production (IC(50)<0.1 microg/ml), while extracts that contained unknown compounds were less effective (IC(50)<3.2 microg/ml). Extracts or standards containing predominantly gingerols were capable of inhibiting LPS-induced COX-2 expression while shogaol containing extracts had no effect on COX-2 expression. These data demonstrate that compounds found in ginger are capable of inhibiting PGE(2) production and that the compounds may act at several sites.

The sex steroid hormone estrogen down-regulates renal organic cation (OC) transport in animals, and it may contribute to sex-related differences in xenobiotic accumulation and excretion. Also, the presence of various endocrine-disrupting chemicals, i.e., environmental chemicals that possess estrogenic activity (e.g., xenoestrogens) may down-regulate various transporters involved in renal accumulation and excretion of xenobiotics. The present study characterizes the mechanism by which long-term (6-day) incubation with physiological concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) or the xenoestrogens diethylstilbestrol (DES) and bisphenol A (BPA) regulates the basolateral membrane transport of the OC tetraethylammonium (TEA) in opossum kidney (OK) cell renal cultures. Both 17beta-E(2) and the xenoestrogen DES produced a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of basolateral TEA uptake in OK cell cultures, whereas the weakly estrogenic BPA had no effect on TEA uptake. Treatment for 6 days with either 1 nM 17beta-E(2) or DES reduced TEA uptake by approximately 30 and 40%, respectively. These effects were blocked completely by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182780 (Faslodex, fulvestrant), suggesting that these estrogens regulate OC transport through the estrogen receptor, which was detected (estrogen receptor alpha) in OK cell cultures by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The J(max) value for TEA uptake in 17beta-E(2)- and DES-treated OK cell cultures was approximately 40 to 50% lower than for ethanol-treated cultures, whereas K(t) was unaffected. This reduction in transport capacity was correlated with a reduction in OC transporter OCT1 protein expression following treatment with both agents.

An electroneutral organic cation (OC)/proton exchanger in the apical membrane of proximal tubules mediates the final step of renal OC excretion. Two members of the multidrug and toxin extrusion family, MATE1 and MATE2-K, were recently identified in human and rodent kidney and proposed to be the molecular basis of renal OC/H(+) exchange. To take advantage of the comparative value of the large database on the kinetic and selectivity characteristics of OC/H(+) exchange that exists for rabbit kidney, we cloned rbMATE1 and rbMATE2-K. The rabbit homologs have 75% (MATE1) and 74% (MATE2-K) amino acid identity to their human counterparts (and 51% identity with each other). rbMATE1 and rbMATE2-K exhibited H(+) gradient-dependent uptake and efflux of tetraethylammonium (TEA) when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Both transporters displayed similar affinities for selected compounds [IC(50) values within 2-fold for TEA, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, and quinidine] and very different affinities for others (IC(50) values differing by 8- to 80-fold for choline and cimetidine, respectively). These results indicate that rbMATE1 and rbMATE2-K are multispecific OC/H(+) exchangers with similar, but distinct, functional characteristics. Overall, the selectivity of MATE1 and MATE2-K correlated closely with that observed in rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles.

Human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2) is essential for the renal tubular secretion of many toxic organic cations. Previously, of the cysteines (C437, C451, C470, and C474) that occur within transmembrane helices that comprise the hydrophilic cleft (proposed site of substrate binding), only C474 was accessible to maleimide-PEO(2)-biotin (hydrophilic thiol-reactive reagent), and covalent modification of this residue caused lower transport rates (Pelis RM, Zhang X, Dangprapai Y, Wright SH, J Biol Chem 281: 35272-35280, 2006). Thus it was hypothesized that the environmental contaminant Hg(2+) (as HgCl(2)) would interact with C474 to reduce hOCT2-mediated transport. Uptake of [(3)H]tetraethylammonium (TEA) into Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing hOCT2 was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by HgCl(2), with an IC(50) of 3.9 +/- 0.11 microM. Treatment with 10 microM HgCl(2) caused a sixfold reduction in the maximal rate of TEA transport but did not alter the affinity of hOCT2 for TEA. To determine which cysteines interact with Hg(2+), a mutant with all four cleft cysteines converted to alanines (quadruple mutant), and four variants of this mutant, each with an individual cysteine restored, were created. The quadruple mutant was less sensitive to HgCl(2) than wild-type, whereas the C451- and C474-containing mutants were more sensitive than the quadruple mutant. Consistent with the HgCl(2) effect on transport, MTSEA-biotin only interacted with C451 and C474. These data indicate that C451 and C474 of hOCT2 reside in the aqueous milieu of the cleft and that interaction of Hg(2+) with these residues causes reduced TEA transport activity.

The majority of HIV-1-infected neonates and infants have a higher level of viremia and develop AIDS more rapidly than infected adults, including differences seen in clinical manifestations. To determine the mechanisms of HIV-1 infection in neonates vs. adults, we compared the replication kinetics of HIV-1 in neonatal (cord) and adult blood T lymphocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from seven different donors. We found that HIV-1 replicated 3-fold better in cord blood T lymphocytes compared with adult blood T lymphocytes and 9-fold better in cord MDM than adult MDM. We also show that this differential HIV-1 replication did not depend on differences in cell proliferative capabilities, cell surface expression of CD4, CXCR4, and CCR5, or in the amount of PCR products of reverse transcription, DNA synthesis, and translocation of preintegration complex into the nucleus in cord and adult T lymphocytes and MDM. Furthermore, using a single-cycle replication competent HIV-1-NL4-3-Env(-) luciferase amphotropic virus, which measures HIV-1 transcriptional activity independent of receptor and coreceptor expression, we found there was a 3-fold increase of HIV-1 LTR-driven luciferase expression in cord T lymphocytes compared with adult T lymphocytes and 10-fold in cord MDM than in adult MDM. The HIV-1 LTR-driven luciferase expression correlated with HIV-1 LTR transcription, as measured by ribonuclease protection assay. These data suggest that the increased replication of HIV-1 in cord blood compared with adult blood mononuclear cells is regulated at the level of HIV-1 gene expression, resulting in a higher level of viremia and faster disease progression in neonates than adults.

Arsenic is recognized as a carcinogen for human skin, bladder, and lung, following either ingestion or inhalation; however the exact mode of action of environmentally relevant exposure has not been determined. Because arsenic in the environment exists in several oxidative states and can interact with thiols, it is thought that arsenic toxicity is mediated through oxidative stress. Production of oxygen radicals following acute in vitro exposures has been demonstrated. However, our research has chosen to focus on the role of oxidative stress following whole animal exposure to environmentally relevant doses of arsenic. Following a 28-d inhalation of arsenic or cigarette smoke or both, there was a significant decrease in both the reduced and total glutathione levels in the combined arsenic and smoke group compared to groups exposed to arsenic or smoke alone. This correlated with a 5-fold increase in DNA oxidation. Lungs processed for immunohistochemistry localization of 8-oxo-dG showed increased staining in nuclei of airway epithelium and subadjacent interstitial cells. Increases in DNA oxidation were not due to increased inflammation. Although inhalation of arsenic is an important occupational exposure, the majority of human exposures occurs through ingestion of arsenic. Our recent work has been devoted to the identification of altered pulmonary gene and protein expression following ingestion of environmentally relevant levels of arsenic in drinking water. We have found that, following chronic exposure, arsenic leads to misregulation of a number of genes and proteins in the lung. A large percentage of the altered genes and proteins are known to be regulated by redox-sensitive transcription factors, (SP1, NF kappaB, AP-1), suggesting that, at environmentally relevant levels of chronic exposure, arsenic may be acting through alteration of cellular redox status. Validation of the alterations seen in animal models of exposure is being carried out in humans.

Scientific evidence is lacking for the antiarthritic efficacy of turmeric dietary supplements that are being promoted for arthritis treatment. Therefore, we undertook studies to determine the antiarthritic efficacy and mechanism of action of a well-characterized turmeric extract using an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

The composition of commercial turmeric dietary supplements was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. A curcuminoid-containing turmeric extract similar in composition to these supplements was isolated and administered intraperitoneally to female Lewis rats prior to or after the onset of streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis. Efficacy in preventing joint swelling and destruction was determined clinically, histologically, and by measurement of bone mineral density. Mechanism of action was elucidated by analysis of turmeric's effect on articular transcription factor activation, microarray analysis of articular gene expression, and verification of the physiologic effects of alterations in gene expression.

A turmeric fraction depleted of essential oils profoundly inhibited joint inflammation and periarticular joint destruction in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo treatment prevented local activation of NF-kappaB and the subsequent expression of NF-kappaB-regulated genes mediating joint inflammation and destruction, including chemokines, cyclooxygenase 2, and RANKL. Consistent with these findings, inflammatory cell influx, joint levels of prostaglandin E(2), and periarticular osteoclast formation were inhibited by turmeric extract treatment.

These translational studies demonstrate in vivo efficacy and identify a mechanism of action for a well-characterized turmeric extract that supports further clinical evaluation of turmeric dietary supplements in the treatment of RA.

C57BL/6 mice were nose-only exposed to JP-8 jet fuel at average concentrations of 45, 267, and 406 mg JP-8/m(3) for 1 hr/d for 7 days to further test the hypothesis that exposure to JP-8 concentrations below the current permissible exposure level (PEL) of 350 mg/m(3) will induce lung injury, and to validate a new "in-line, real-time" total hydrocarbon analysis system capable of measuring both JP-8 vapor and aerosol concentrations. Pulmonary function and respiratory permeability tests were performed 24 to 30 hr after the final exposures. No significant effects were observed at 45 or 267 mg/m(3). The only significant effect observed at 406 mg/m(3) was a decrease in inspiratory dynamic lung compliance. Morphological examination and morphometric analysis of distal lung tissue demonstrated that alveolar type II epithelial cells showed limited cellular damage with the notable exception of a significant increase in the volume density of lamellar bodies (vacuoles), which is indicative of increased surfactant production, at 45 and 406 mg/m(3). The terminal bronchial epithelium showed initial signs of cellular damage, but the morphometric analysis did not quantify these changes as significant. The morphometric analysis techniques appear to provide an increased sensitivity for detecting the deleterious effects of JP-8 as compared to the physiological evidence offered by pulmonary function or respiratory permeability tests. These observations suggest that the current 350 mg/m(3) PEL for both JP-8 jet fuel and for other more volatile petroleum distillates should be reevaluated and a lower, more accurate PEL should be established with regard human occupational exposure limits.

Epidemiological evidence has indicated that arsenic and cigarette smoking exposure act synergistically to increase the incidence of lung cancer. Since oxidative damage of DNA has been linked to cancer, our hypothesis is that aerosolized arsenic and cigarette smoke work synergistically to increase oxidative stress and increase DNA oxidation in the lung. To test this hypothesis male Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to room air (control), aerosolized arsenic compounds (3.2 mg/m3 for 30 minutes), cigarette smoke (5 mg/m3 for 30 minutes), or both smoke and arsenic. Exposures were for 5 days/week for 5 or 28-days. Animals were sacrificed one day after the last exposure. In the 28-day group, glutathione levels and DNA oxidation (8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG)) were determined. Our results show that in the 28-day arsenic/smoke group there was a significant decrease in both the reduced and total glutathione levels compared with arsenic or smoke alone. This correlated with a 5-fold increase in DNA oxidation as shown by HPLC. Immunohistochemical localization of 8-oxo-dG showed increase staining in nuclei of airway epithelium and subadjacent interstitial cells. These results show that dual exposure of arsenic and cigarette smoke at environmentally relevant levels can act synergistically to cause DNA damage.

Turmeric has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine as a treatment for inflammatory disorders including arthritis. On the basis of this traditional usage, dietary supplements containing turmeric rhizome and turmeric extracts are also being used in the western world for arthritis treatment and prevention. However, to our knowledge, no data are available regarding antiarthritic efficacy of complex turmeric extracts similar in composition to those available for use as dietary supplements. Therefore, the studies described here were undertaken to determine the in vivo efficacy of well-characterized curcuminoid-containing turmeric extracts in the prevention or treatment of arthritis using streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis, a well-described animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Arthritic index, a clinical measure of joint swelling, was used as the primary endpoint for assessing the effect of extracts on joint inflammation. An essential oil-depleted turmeric fraction containing 41% of the three major curcuminoids was efficacious in preventing joint inflammation when treatment was started before, but not after, the onset of joint inflammation. A commercial sample containing 94% of the three major curcuminoids was more potent in preventing arthritis than the essential oil-depleted turmeric fraction when compared by total curcuminoid dose per body weight. In conclusion, these data (1) document the in vivo antiarthritic efficacy of an essential oil-depleted turmeric fraction and (2) suggest that the three major curcuminoids are responsible for this antiarthritic effect, while the remaining compounds in the crude turmeric extract may inhibit this protective effect.

Organic cation transporters (OCTs) are involved in the renal elimination of many cationic drugs and toxins. A hypothetical three-dimensional structure of OCT2 based on a homology model that used the Escherichia coli glycerol 3-phosphate transporter as a template has been described (Zhang, X., Shirahatti, N. V., Mahadevan, D., and Wright, S. H. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 34813-34822). To further define OCT structure, the accessibility to hydrophilic thiol-reactive reagents of the 13 cysteine residues contained in the human ortholog of OCT2 was examined. Maleimide-PEO2-biotin precipitated (surface biotinylation followed by Western blotting) and reduced tetraethylammonium transport by OCT2 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, effects that were largely reversed by co-exposure to substrates and transport inhibitors, suggesting interaction with cysteines that are near to or part of a substrate-binding surface. Cysteines at amino acid position 437, 451, 470, and 474 were identified from the model as being located in transmembrane helices that participate in forming the hydrophilic cleft, the proposed region of substrate-protein interaction. To determine which residues are exposed to the solvent, a mutant with all four of these cysteines converted to alanine, along with four variants of this mutant each with an individual cysteine restored, were created. Maleimide-PEO2-biotin was only effective at precipitating and reducing transport by wild-type OCT2 and the mutant with cysteine 474 restored. Additionally, the smaller thiol-reactive reagent, methanethiosulfonate ethylsulfonate, reduced transport by wild-type OCT2 and the mutant with cysteine 474 restored. These data demonstrate that cysteine 474 of OCT2 is exposed to the aqueous milieu of the cleft and contributes to forming a pathway for organic cation transport.

OCT2, an organic cation transporter critical for removal of many drugs and toxins from the body, contains consensus sites for N-glycosylation at amino acid position 71, 96, and 112. However, the extent to which these sites are glycosylated by the cell, and the influence glycosylation has on OCT2 function, remains unknown. To address these issues, the acquisition of N-glycosylation was disrupted by mutating the amino acid asparagine (N) to glutamine (Q) at these sites in the rabbit ortholog of OCT2, which was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Disruption of N-glycosylation followed by Western blotting indicated that each site is indeed glycosylated and that OCT2 contains no other sites of N-glycosylation. Plasma membrane expression (determined by surface biotinylation) of the N112Q mutant, but not N71Q or N96Q mutants, was fourfold lower than that of wild-type OCT2, and unglycosylated OCT2 (N71Q/N96Q/N112Q) was sequestered in an unidentified intracellular compartment. The N71Q, N96Q, and N112Q mutants had a higher affinity ( approximately 2-fold) for tetraethylammonium (TEA). Maximum transport rate was reduced in the N96Q (3-fold) and N112Q (5-fold) mutants, but not the N71Q mutant, and unglycosylated OCT2 failed to transport TEA (associated with its absence in the plasma membrane). Whereas the reduction in maximum transport rate of the N112Q mutant is consistent with its reduced plasma membrane expression, the lower rate of the N96Q mutant, which appeared to traffic properly, suggests that glycosylation at N96 increases the transporter turnover number.